STUDY OF THE CHRONOLOGICAL DATES IN EARLY WORLD AQUACULTURE (Water Farming) HISTORY FROM 2800 B.C. (First pub. 1985. World of Water. Updated Dec. 2016)
Medieval Fishponds and Water Engineering Systems : M.Aston BA FSA MIFA; R.Iles BA; R.Chambers; Dr.C.Dyer BA; C.J. Bond BA FSA MIFA; S.Rippon PhD.
Period 2852 B.C. to 2737 B.C. The first of China’s five Emperors, developed some knowledge of pond culture of Grey Mullet and Carp
From 2357 B.C. to 2205 B.C., the Emperors of China, Yao and Shun, appointed the World’s first recorded Fishery Inspectors and Instructors.
2052-1786 B.C. Egyptian hieroglyphics suggest the Egyptians of the Middle Kingdom worked to culture fish in an intensive way. They certainly domesticated sea fishes to supply the luxurious tables of their richer houses; they also appointed special “Fish Keepers” to do the Fish Husbandry
Circa 100 B.C., the Roman ‘Sergius Orata’ developed Oyster Beds at Baiae on the Lucrine Sea (“In 95 B.C. Sergius Orata successfully established a large oyster cultivation area at Lake Lucrine”)
Circa 65 B.C., the Roman General ‘Lucullus’ built the Fish Ponds of Tusculum, near the Bay of Naples. There’s a fun Circular Fish (Breeding?) pond at Lago di Paola ( See picture to Right) but so far I have no idea who built it. It took many centuries for the circular pond to catch on, now many fish farmers use them regularly.
Further reading: Piscinae. Artificial Fishponds in Roman Italy. By James Higginbotham. Paperback ISBN: 978-0-8078-3604-0 Published by The University of North Carolina Press. September 2012. More on Roman Aquaculture.
9th Century remains of river weirs have been discovered in the UK
960 A.D. to 1276 A.D., the Goldfish originated after work on selective cross-breeding during this Sung Dynasty. MORE>
1060’s UK texts mention the expression “A fother of small rods built on the River Severn”. If you know what a “Fother” was, contact us
c.1086 A.D. According to the Doomsday Survey, the large scale construction of artificial fish ponds in the UK was introduced by the Normans following their 1066 Invasion.
1086 A.D., The monk pond of Timsbury Lake was well established; it is nowadays used as part of a carp farm. I visited during renovations.
12th Century. The Fish Ponds of Evesham Abbey (UK) were formed (“The larger north eastern fish pond is approximately 57m long by 8m wide and is separated from a second fishpond by a dam and leat.” MORE> )
1215 A.D. (UK) Magna Carta forbade obstructions to rivers caused by fishermans’s weirs
1229 A.D., the Romans started transforming the Great Lagoon of Comacchio on the Adriatic Sea, into Fish Ponds. These are still in use.
1235 A.D., Patrick Walton is said to have invented the “bouchot” method of mussel culture
14th Century: It is thought that shallow Prawn trapping-growing ponds were being built in Indonesia at this time.
14th Century: Records indicate the collapse of Yarmouth Herring Industry (UK) and a drop in supply of Sea Fish
Pre 1377 A.D . kitchen accounts for Abingdon Abbey, UK. (page ref. 38) it shows the purchase of herrings, eels, salmon, codling, haddock, smelt, lampreys, rocket or piper fish, oysters, sturgeon and mackerel. On page 40, it includes a payment for cleaning the fishponds. The 1388–9 Gardener’s Account for this same Abbey, indicates that the garden contained a fishpond and the gardener derived 12 shillings and 8 pence * from fish sold. The Abbey’s Pittancer’s account for period 1322 – 3 includes the cost of 9s 6d for ‘Fish bought for restocking the fishpond and another figure of 2s 2d spent in ‘feeding the fish’. [Source: R.E.G. Kirk (ed.), ‘Accounts of the Obedientiars of Abingdon Abbey’, Camden Society. New series. Vol. 51 (1892) ] *[old currency prior to decimalisation in the UK – often written as 12/- and 8d or when combined 12/8d … there were 240 old pennies and twenty shillings to the £ sterling pound – twelve old pennies to the shilling! ]
1396 (May), The Abbot of Tewksbury (UK) and many more were taken to court for having illegal fish weirs (They all got off on technicalities)
In a 1420 A.D. manuscript (unpublished until 1850), Dom Pichon, a French Monk of the Abbey of Reome, outlines the process of “Artificial fecundation and hatching of fish eggs”.
In 1496 A.D. Dame Juliana Berners published “A Treatyse of Fysshynge with an Angle” . Reference to Carp in UK is made therein.
15th and 16th Century records show sea fish on sale inland at Coventry Market (UK)
In the early 1500’s, Prior Morton of Worcester, was producing fish on a commercial scale and experimenting with carp. (Reported in “The high Middle Ages 1200 – 1550 by T.Rowley). Prior Mors’ journal of 1530 A.D. documents well the restocking of Fish ponds.
1530 AD (Prior Mors Journal, UK) documents the stocking of fish ponds. (Then: UK Dissolution of Monasteries 1535 to 1540 A.D. slows developments)
In 1547 or 1559 A.D., Ianus Dubravius de Piscinis (Bishop of Olmutz, Moravia) compiled the book ‘Study on Fish and Fish Husbandry’, (De piscinis et piscium, qui in eis aluntur natura. Pub. in Wrocław, 1547) covering in general terms, fish feeding, pond construction, plumbing, stocking for carp, tench, pike, trout and other freshwater fish. A friend of mine and keen Sustainable Aquaculture enthusiast, mentions that Dubravius based his stuff on the work of the Greek, *Xenocrates. Anyway, it was published in Latin and then in 1599 A.D. (9th February) translated into English at the special request of George Churchey. A copy of this English edition must have got into the hands of John Taverner according to my notes from Richard St. George because Taverner’s lifts a fair (or maybe unfair) amount from this Churchey edition.
In 1590 A.D., Leonard Mascall published his ‘Booke of fishinge’. He was thought of by R.B.Maston, to be “The Pioneer of Fish Culture in England owing to his recipes for preserving fish spawn”.
In 1600 A.D. (22nd January) John Taverner’s ‘Certaine Experiments concerning Fish and Fruite’(W.Ponsonby,London. pp38) was printed. He contributed much to the information available in Europe through observing the natural courtship, spawning of carp but there’s no indication that he tried to control the breeding in any artificial ‘farmed’ manner.
In 1620 A.D., Japanese Oyster Culture started in the Hiroshima Perfecture. Have you more information on this? Contact us.
1639 A.D, ‘The Complete Book of Aquiculture’, by Hsu Kwang Chi (Ming Dynasty), was published. Was this ever re-printed? Let us know.
1683 A.D. Gervase Markham described in detail in his ‘Country Gentleman’s Handbook’, how to husband Roach, Dace, Minnows and Eels. He says (quote) that all big fish will food on “the inward garbage and blood of Sheepe, Calves and Hogges”.
1700 (circa) Bolivians develop a 500 square kilometre ‘fish farm’. In the late 1950s, Archaeologists find these earthworks in the Baures region of the Bolivian Amazon, but these are not recognised as a 300 year old system of weirs and pools for fish farming until the end of the Century when Clark Erickson of the University of Pennsylvania re-examines the site. Any updated views on this – send them on to us .
1713 (Sept.14th) The Honorable Roger North published ‘A Discourse of Fish and Fish Ponds'( E.Curll,London) concerning carp farming but a friend and fellow author on the subject, Richard St. George, tells me it’s mostly a copy of John Taverner’s work of 1600.
In 1755 (some reports say 1733) Stephen Ludvig Jacobi, Germany, noticed a decline in trout number on a stream running through his land. He eventually published his work on trout breeding in 1763 and 1765. His technique was to strip both hen and cock fish underwater and rear the eggs up to fry stage for restocking the Kallebach stream. Although his findings were translated into French (Duhamel) and Italian (Cavolini), they caused only a momentary stir.
1758 A.D., Count von Golstein, a German Naturalist, declares that he has re-discovered man’s ability to hatch fish eggs in artificial conditions – not that ‘man’ really does much in the process. Had he been spying on Stephen Jacobi?
1761 A.D., Lund in Sweden invented ‘the Lund Box’ (good name to pick) … a method of keeping fish eggs once naturally spawned.
By the 1790’s, Halesowen (Hales) Abbey had an elaborate fish pond system. It is still visible today. I was asked to survey this by Lord Cobham’s Estate Office a while back with a view to re-instating it for fishing use.
1834 A.D., Shaw and Young started work on artificial Salmon Hatching in Scotland
1837 A.D. John Shaw of Drumbugrigg, Scotland, developed skills in ‘artificially impregnating salmon eggs’, publishing his observations in 1840. Edinburgh. Is there a copy of this in your Library? Contact us.
1841 A.D., An excellent treatise on the Management of Fresh Water Fish, was published by Gottlieb Boccius in London and dedicated to Sir Robert Shafto Adair, Flixten Hall, Harlesten, Norfolk. Ponds on this Norfolk estate are mentioned in the book along with 22 ponds (largest being 27 acres) at Machern in Saxony.
In 1842 A.D. Gehin, and Joseph Remy in France, independently re-discovered Jacobi’s methods and from this point in History, Fish Farming through artificial spawning started to become popular.
1848 A.D. Gottlieb Boccius’s book “Artificial Spawning, Breeding and Rearing of Fish” is published.
1850 A.D., Don Pichon’s manuscript of 1420 A.D. on the “Artificial Fecundation and Hatching of Fish” was published for the first time.
1851 A.D. The ‘Societe d’Emulation of the Doubs’ issued a paper entitled “Artificial Fecundation of Fish” when they first set up a trout hatchery. This hatchery failed and they moved operations to Huningue. (See below)
July 1852 the salmon breeding operations at Stormontfield originated, at a meeting of ‘The Proprietors of the River Tay’.
5 th August 1852, The Huningue Institute, France, Near Basle, started work on breeding brown trout for re-stocking the rivers of France. Apparently, they built this Trout farm (following a failed attempt at another site in 1851) after the ‘Societe d’Emulation of the Doubs’ pulled all the right strings in the French Government, following a tip off from a school inspector called Mausion, who realised the importance of some fish hatching work being done by a professional Trout netsman, Remy, who along with his friend, J.-B. Gehin (who ran the local pub) was worried about dwindling trout stocks.
Autumn 1852, Messrs. Asworth commenced artificial propagation of Salmon at Oughterard in Galway.
1853. Book by M. Coste entitled “Practical Instructions upon Pisciculture”.
1853. Haxo d’Espinal wrote on the “Artificial Fecundation and Hatching of the Eggs of Fish” . It was a second Edition that came out in 1853
1853. Edmund and Thomas Ashworth pub. “Propagation of Salmon and other Fish”. Stockport.
1850’s, Vogt in Switzerland was working on something but so far, I haven’t had a moment to research this so if you are in Switzerland or know about Vogt’s work, could you send me a sentence or two to put here.
c. 1854. After reading Stephen Ludvig Jacobi’s German experiments of 1763 A.D., Dr. T. Garlick (of Cleveland, Ohio, North America) and Mr. Ackley started having great success rearing different freshwater fish in America. They probably did some work on Rainbow or Steel head trout whilst Europe was still working with their Brown trout at this time. They published in *1857.
Autumn 1856. The major discovery of the ‘Dry Method’ of taking fish eggs (i.e. onto a sieve, not into or underwater) was made in Russia, by M.Vrasski. (Or some spell it Wrasky) This breakthrough method turned fish farming around but it’s not quite the same one used nowadays for today, the eggs go into a bowl with the ovarian fluid which works a treat – I can’t credit anyone with this more ‘moist method’ yet, but if you know of the person who should be included in this “Fish Farming Hall of Fame” for ditching the Vrasski sieve idea then tell me please and I’ll update this. Thank you.
1857. Theodatus Garlick*, M.D., North America, published his findings in “Fish Culture : A treatise on the Artificial Propagation of Fish”. New York.
1860’s onwards: During this Era, many people were working on developing Fish Farming and Aquaculture:-
In Great Britain, Halford, James Hogg, Andrew Knox, and Boccius; In Germany, Bloch; In France, Quatrefages; In Italy, Spallanzani.
1862. William Brown. “Natural History of the Salmon, as ascertained at Stormontfield”. Glasgow.
April 2nd 1863, the opening of the First Public Aquarium ( Fish House in Regents Park Zoological Gardens, London. Keeper: James Tennant). In this same year Frank Buckland published his book on Fish Hatching, displayed fish-hatching apparatus in the window of the offices of “The Field” Magazine in the Strand, London, and started work on the World’s first ‘Museum of Economic Fish-Culture’.
1863 A.D., Mr Stephen Ponder Hampton conducted artificial fish propagation work for the Thames Angling Preservation Society.
1864 A.D., M. Coste and Dr. Kemmerer “Propagation of Oysters”. Brighton. Do you know whereabouts this took place? Add your facts.
1865 A.D., the book ‘Fish – Culture’ by Francis Francis was published. His Grandson, John M. Francis of Ropley donated a copy of his Grandfather’s book to the World of Water library in 1986.
1866 A.D., W.A.Fry. ” Artificial Fish Breeding” . New York
c. 1866 A.D., Seth Green made the first attempts to organise a series of Fish Breeding stations throughout America. He published his work “Trout Culture” in 1870, Caledonia, New York.
1868. J.J.Armistead, assisted by John Parnaby, worked on Canadian ideas and built the first real Commercial Hatchery in Great Britain … The Troutdale Hatchery, at Borrowdale, Cumberland.
1868. William Beard, M.D., “Practical Water Farming”. Edinburgh.
1868 . Thaddeus Norris. “American Fish Culture”. Philadelphia.
1869 The American Trout (Salmo fontinalis) was introduced into Great Britain and bred with success at Troutdale Hatchery.
1870 A.D. The First Sturgeon Farm was set up, in Russia. I think there is about 26 now but if you are in Russia and know the latest score, hi there, let us know and we’ll update this. Thank you. I’ve never tasted Sturgeon or the smaller Sterlet but I love the pattern of their scales and their overall shape.
1870 A.D. Est. of the Deutsher Fisherie Vereim (A powerful influence on European Fish Culture matters)
1870 The American ‘Fish Culturists’ Association’ was formed.
circa 1872 In U.S.A., ‘The Bureau of Fisheries’ was formed.
1873. The first living Black Bass (Grystes nigricaus) ever seen in Britain, were brought over from America to Troutdale Hatchery for trial breeding.
1882. After being so impressed with American efforts to farm marine fish, Captain G.M.Dannervig founded a commercial marine fish hatchery, mainly for cod, at Flodevigen on the Skagerrak, Norway.
1883. The International Fisheries Exhibition took place at South Kensington, London.
1885. America’s first commercial marine hatchery was in full operation at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Soon after, another was set up at Gloucester Harbour, North of Cape Cod.
1885 in Europe, saw a “common fisheries policy” start. Due to pollution of the River Rhine thus the decline in Salmon stocks, all those states bordering the Rhine agreed to jointly manage its long Salmon Fishery by building Salmon Hatcheries. They didn’t manage to halt the pollution so this effort failed over time. How are the salmon stocks in the Rhine at the moment … if you know, let me know! Thank you.
1887, The first English Fisheries Laboratory was opened by the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth. Still going strong.
circa 1889, William James Lunn started the first Trout Hatchery on the River Test for the Houghton Fishing Club.
circa 1890, The American ‘steel head’ or rainbow trout was imported into Denmark kicking off their start into fish farming though I think the ‘steel head’ was first brought into Europe around 1860. I visited the Bayerische Landesanstalt fur Fischerie in Starnberg, Bavaria, and Dr. Bayrle told me their records show they had stocks of both Rainbow and Brook Trout from America in 1881. Denmark went into Marine fish farming in 1974 and is doing rather well for a late starter!
1893 . The First cultured pear was produced on July 11th in Japan [though naturally the pearl oyster had been working on it for sometime!]
1893. A Plaice Hatchery was erected near the Marine Biological Station at Dunbar in Scotland; managed by Harald Dannevig from Norway. Was Captain G.M.Dannervig (1882) his father? Contact me.
1894. First UK School of Fish Culture opened by J.J.Armistead at Solway
1897. The Lancashire Sea Fisheries Committee financed the setting-up of a hatchery for Plaice and Flounder at Piel, near Barrow.
1901. The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was set up to assess the problems of maintaining long-term marine fish supplies.
1902. A Plaice hatchery at Port Erin, Isle of Man, was established. This survives to this day but is now a marine laboratory.
1905. America’s third commercial marine hatchery starts operating at Boothbay Harbour.
1912. Norway started salt water farming of Rainbow Trout.
1912. Prof. Hoffer, famed for his “Hoffer Pond” , designed the Wielenbach fish farm. I visited there in 1983 when Dr. Martin Bohl was planning to start a pilot plant breeding daphnia and rotifer. Does anyone reading this know how the plans progressed as in two years time, I’ll be re-looking at live feed production techniques again for a new shellfish farm development. If you have any news, I’d be very happy if you would update me, thank you.
1921. The Lowestoft Fisheries Laboratory was opened, UK.
1921. The Futami Shell Culture Experimental Station opened, Japan.
1930s. The Italians were at their goldfish production peak using the same fish farming areas at Comacchio on the Adriatic that the Romans used circa. 1229 A.D..
1935. Western Australia established a fish hatchery at Pemberton.
1950. A Danish entrepreneur opened the first “table trout” farm in Lincolnshire. If you have any details on this, let me know at WoW
Since 1951 the Massachusetts’ State Lobster Hatchery and Research Station at Vineyard Haven has been rearing lobsters to the liberating stage for release along their coastline.
1959. In the Sudan, the Black Lip Pearl Shell is farmed to support the development of a Button factory.
1960. First British Seaweed Farm was started by George Tessyman.
1968 . A special mention for the Late C.F.Hickling who wrote “The Farming of Fish” (Pergamon Press) because in 1986, his son, Canon C.H.A. Hickling, became a patron of the UK Educational Charity, World of Water. Hickling family Update: C.F.Hickling’s great-nephew studied for a degree in Marine Biology. Get in touch with your news.
February 1975. The Law had to be changed in Western Australia so as to allow the establishment of private Crayfish Farms.
The growth in Aquaculture, following a surge in interest for this sort of farming in the 1960’s, has continued to this day – examples too numerous to mention. It was estimated in 1990 that the World Aquaculture harvest was then worth over $22 billion.
Many societies now exist to promote farming the Waters of the World and notably, in April 1976 the European Mariculture Society was established. Many magazines are now published and if you do an internet search on Aquaculture, Mariculture, Pisciculture or Fish/ Shellfish Farming, you will get more results than you can possibly ever read.
In 1982, the U.K.’s Educational Charity, World of Water, worked with Dr. Seddon’s Team at the Birmingham City Museum, Art Gallery and Nature Centre to present the first exhibition on the ‘History of Fish Farming and Aquaculture‘. Like Frank Buckland’s ‘Museum of Economic Fish Culture’ over 100 years before, it called for the careful, ecologically balanced development of Fish Farming.
1983 – 84 World of Water’s message toured the UK with the West Midlands Museum Service thanks to the foresight of Jocelyn Orchard.
1986 WoW (World of Water) granted UK Registered Charity Status
2004 AWF (Aquaculture Without Frontiers) granted UK Charity Status.
2005 UK’s first Barramundi Farm opens.
The start of the 21st century saw aquaculture take on great importance worldwide. According to a report on fishing and aquaculture by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2016, “In terms of global production volume, that of farmed fish and aquatic plants combined, surpassed that of capture fisheries in 2013”.
Above summary first published as part of the ‘Wet Harvest’ exhibition, Birmingham Nature Centre, Birmingham. UK.
To accompany this exhibition, various artifacts and early aquaculture equipment were loaned to World of Water. The inventory of exhibits included:
Ancient Egyptians fishing and fish keeping (illustration)
“Piscinae: Artificial Fishponds in Roman Italy” by Higginbotham (ISBN 0-8078-2329-5 c.1997) (Book)
Illustration depicting a long Shell Necklace on a bearded merman or possibly depicting early Mussel (Rope) Culture.
Pen and ink drawing c.1673 Oyster Culture methods in Japan, showing the placing of bamboo hurdles in intertidal zones to catch the oyster spat fall and the harvesting.
Model of ‘Kakaban’ or ‘Spawning Mat’ ( An artificial ‘mat’ of vegetation; weighted down in ponds at spawning time to ‘capture’ sticky fish eggs like those of carp.)
Drawing of Fish Cage (Weighted down) Date unknown but pre-dates 1856 (date of publication) A hundred years later, Dr. Marcel Huet photographs a similar system still in use in Indonesia to confine Carp.
Model depicting Dom Pichon (from the 1982 World of Water Exhibition, Aber Gwen Visitor Centre). Reference Note: Fellow researcher, Richard St.George mentions that Juliana was the Prioress of a Nunnery at the time of Dom Pichon whose treatise on Pond Culture may have been reproduced in 1590 A.D.
Notes on possible First Carp in England from Dame Juliana Berners book “A treatise of Fysshynge with an Angle” (First pub., thought to be 1496. Republished Circa 1506). Date disputed – could have been 1514 A.D. (per Leonard Mascal. See below). This question was aired on a BBC TV programme filmed at Crasswall Priory. One thing that both Izaak Walton and C.F. Hickling quote, is this little ditty in their books : “Turkies, carps, hops, pickles and beer came all into England in one year”.
Reference Note: 1547 may be date of 1st Edn.. 1559(Zurich?), 2nd Edn.. 1599 Edn was first English Language Edn. and titled “Booke of Good Husbandry”.
British Library Copy of ‘A Book of fishing with hooke and line, and of all other instruments there-unto belonging. Leonard Mascall 1590, ends abruptly on page 93
Model depicting Leonard Mascall; from the 1982 World of Water Exhibition
Oyster Culture Mats. Placed in sea to collect spat (young free-swimming stage in Oyster life) and provide a home surface on which the oyster attaches and grows.
” It appears (Roger) North repeated Taverner almost verbatum with little original work. In turn Taverner derived material from George Churchey whose material was exclusively taken from James Dubravius. Dubravius’ work is based on the writings of the Greek, Xenecratis (Xenecrates)”. (per Richard St.George). There may be a possible reprint London Edn. in 1770
Model depicting Stephen Ludvig Jacobi from the 1982 World of Water Exhibition
Diagram: ‘Caisse de Stephen Jacobi’ – rather like Kashmir or Pahari Boxes but with one or more hinged lids.
Diagram of stripping ova into water before the ‘Dry Method’ was discovered in Russia by M.Vrasski 1856
Book: “A Plain and Easy Introduction to the Knowledge and Practice of Gardening, with Hints on Fish & Fish Ponds. Charles Marshall. London 1796 A.D. (Also an Edn. in 1805).
Book: “Experimental Observations on the Development and Growth of Salmon Fry. John Shaw. Edinburgh. 1840
Journal of the Agricultural Union of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. No.37 1840 AD
Memoirs of the Central Society of Agriculture . Vol. XLVIII. 1840 Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
Address of G.Boccius, New Road, Shepherd’s Bush, London. Oct.16th 1841
Reports on the work of Gehin and Remy in 1842
Book: “Artificial Spawning, Breeding and Rearing of Fish, Gottlieb Boccius. Van Voorst,Paternoster Row 1848. (7290, c.20 British Library Reference)
Preserved Trout Eggs on framed glass tube racking (On loan from Bibury Trout Farm) suspended in slate hatching troughs.
Illustration: Starret’s American Chopping Machine for preparing Fish Food
Engraving: Water-powered Trout Feeding Machine “Futtermaschine fur die Kunstliche Fischzucht. Otto Hamerle”.
Sieve for catching fish ova that allows ovarian fluid to drain through.
Fish Transporting ‘box’ from Bavaria
Index Cards (Searle / Buckland) Museum of Economic Fish Culture, London, UK. c.1864.
Photograph: Two fish egg pickers at work removing dead eggs in a trout hatchery using special cup ended fish egg picking tweezers.
Photograph: J.J. Armistead , ‘Consulting Piscatorial Engineer’, Solway Fishery, Dumfries, with conical Howietown Fishery (Stirling) Fry Transport tank foreground detail. Site of the First UK School of Fish Culture 1894
Photograph: Stripping Salmon Ova. USA
Fish Transporting Can (On loan from Arlington Mill Museum, Bibury) as Exhibited at the WoW Exhibition on the History & Future of Aquaculture, UK. 1983
Photograph: The First UK School of Fish Culture, started by J.J.Armistead in 1894 (See also entry for 1868. re: The Troutdale Hatchery, at Borrowdale, Cumberland)
Glass Grille incubation tray incubation tray used to hold fish eggs mid-water in shallow hatching troughs. Displayed at the WoW Exhibition on the History and Future of Aquaculture, City Museum, Stoke on Trent 1987. (loaned from Bibury Fish Farm)
Message from Jane Bryant re: Ravert-Wattel, C. La Pisciculture Industrielle. 1914. G.Doin et Cie. Paris. 408p 74 fig. .
Drawings: Futami Shell Culture Station (Hyogo Prefecture, Japan 1921-1938) showing experiments on collecting Oyster Larvae on Tree Branches; Bamboo Sticks; Stones; Shells; Wood Chips covered in coal tar; Concrete Blocks; Glass and Roofing Tiles.
Book and letter from Hickling, C.F. “Fish Culture” . 2nd Edn. 1971 Faber and Faber, London
Book: Lehrbuch der Terchwirtschaft. (Pub. 1933, Paul Parey, Berlin, 289p., 71 fig.) by ‘W. Schaeperclaus’, re: Fish Farming in Germany.
E.W.Searle’s original cast from the Frank Buckland’s Museum of Economic Fish Culture [c.1864] of 13 trout killed by a pollution incident. On loan from Bibury Fish Farm and Exhibited at the WoW 1982 Exhibition.
Design drawings for International Water Educational Centre; 1st published by World of Water, 1985. (Designed by Architect and WoW Trustee Tim Griffiths.)
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Further reading: HISTORY OF AQUACULTURE by Herminio R. Rabanal
Bardach, J.E., 1972 J.H. Ryther and W.O. McLarney, Aquaculture; the farming and husbandry of freshwater and marine organisms. Wiley-Interscience, N.Y. 1972: XIII + 868 p.
FAO. 1976 Symposium on aquaculture in Africa, Accra, Ghana, 30 September–2 October 1975. CIFA Tech. Pap., (4) Suppl. 1:791 p.
FAO. 1977 Simposia sobre acuicultura en America Latina, Montivedio, Uruguay, 26 de Noviembre a 2 de Diciembre de 1974, FAO. Inf. Pesca, (159) Vol. 3: 136 p.
Hickling, C.F. 1962 Fish culture. Faber and Faber, London: 296 p.
Hickling, C.F. 1968 The farming of fish. Pergamon Press, London: 88 p.
Hora, S.L. and T.V.R. Pillay. 1962 Handbook on fish culture in the Indo-Pacific Region. Fisheries Division, FAO, FB/T14: 204 p.
Ling, S.W. 1977 Aquaculture in Southeast Asia: A historical overview. A Washington Sea Grant Publication, Contributions, College of Fisheries, University of Washington No. 465: 108 p.
Pacific Islands Development Program, East West Center, 1984 A review of aquaculture activities in the Pacific Islands Region, PIDP, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 1984: 1–22 papers with variable pages.
Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute. 1980 Pond fish culture in China. Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, China National Bureau of Aquatic Products, February 1980: 136 p.
U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, 1900 G. M, Bowers, Commissioner. A manual of fish-culture, based on the methods of the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, with chapters on the cultivation of oysters and frogs. Washington Government Printing Office, Revised Edition, 1900: X +340 p.
Fellow researcher on the subject of Fish Farming History, Jane Bryant, mentions that in 1968, Theatrum Orbis Terranum Ltd.(Amsterdam) and De Capo Press, New York, published a facsimile of Taverner’s book.